### gravitational potential

**(Φ)**
(conceptual field indicating the strength of gravity at each point)

**Gravitational potential** (often symbolized by **Φ**)
is a mathematical field
(function on space dimensions) that indicates the strength
of gravity's effect on each point in space.
It is the amount of energy required per unit mass to move
the mass far away (e.g., infinite distance,
approximated by a point very distant from any mass).
I.e., the **gravitational potential energy** per unit mass at each point.
(An actual object located at some point would have that point's
*gravitational potential* times the object's mass as its
*gravitational potential energy*.)

Gravitational potential's gradient (direction and magnitude
of most rapid change over distance) is directly related to the
acceleration imposed on something at that point, i.e., the force
per unit mass. As such, it captures the specifics of a
gravitational field as a scalar field, i.e., no direct reference
to vectors or the direction of the force.

Gravitational potential is useful for **dynamics** and **kinematics**,
such as orbital mechanics.

(*physics,gravity,mechanics,dynamics,kinematics*)
**Further reading:**

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitational_potential

**Referenced by pages:**

gravitational field

gravitational potential model

J_{2}

Jeans length

Legendre polynomials

large scale structure (LSS)

mathematical field

Poisson's equation

scalar-tensor gravity

tide

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