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Q factor

(quality factor)
(measure of oscillator's damping)

The Q factor (quality factor) is a quality of an oscillator reflecting how damped it is, the higher the Q factor, the less damping and the more the oscillator will resonate. For example, a pendulum's friction lowers its Q factor. The Q factor is defined as:

              Energy Stored
Q = 2π x ————————————————————————————
         Energy dissipated per cycle

In astrophysics, it is a factor in orbital resonances, for example.

(physics,resonance,orbits,celestial mechanics)