A tidal disruption event (TDE) is a star being pulled apart by the tidal forces of a supermassive black hole. While part of the star is subsumed, for a time, the material is spread out in pieces, some of which are ejected. This type of event was theorized in 1975 but observations have been ascribed to this type of event only with more recent discussion regarding how to distinguish such an event from "ordinary active galactic nucleus activity". Observations include X-rays, gamma rays, and ultraviolet, the latter presumably from clouds heated by the event, e.g., jets produced. Events that show particularly high surges in the X-ray band have been termed X-ray TDEs (X-ray tidal disruption events). The term tidal disruption flare (TDF) is used for the same type of event but can be used specifically to refer to the emitted electromagnetic radiation of a TDE.
The informal term, spaghettification is used for a phenomenon that can happen near a black hole and would be likely to occur during a TDE: stretching objects due to the tidal force: given some positions of an object of some length, the one end can be drawn with much more force than the other end, stretching its length.