### Bose-Einstein statistics

**(B-E statistics, Bose-Einstein distribution)**
(possible distribution of particles not bound by Pauli exclusion)

**Bose-Einstein statistics**
(**B-E statistics** or the **Bose-Einstein distribution**)
describes a distribution of the energy levels of non-interacting,
indistinguishable particles if they are in thermodynamic equilibrium
and are **bosons**, i.e., not bound by the Pauli exclusion principle.

The Pauli exclusion principle, which applies to some other types of
particles (called **fermions**), is the fact
that no more than one such particle within a quantum
system will ever occupy the same quantum state.
The analogous distribution of their energy
levels is called **Fermi-Dirac statistics**
(**F-D statistics** or the **Fermi-Dirac distribution**).

**Bosons** include photons and gluons and **fermions**
include quarks, protons, and neutrons,
but a composite particle with an even number of
fermions (e.g., a helium nucleus of isotope 4) is a boson,
and helium's **superfluid** state at sufficiently low temperatures
is a result of B-E statistics.

If the temperature is sufficiently high and/or
the particles are at a sufficiently low concentration,
both Bose-Einsteins statistics and Fermi-Dirac statistics
approach the classical formulation, **Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics**.

(*statistics,physics,particles*)
**Further reading:**

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bose-Einstein_statistics

**Referenced by pages:**

Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC)

particle

Pauli exclusion principle

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