### Hawking radiation

(EMR theorized to be emitted by black holes, powered by their mass)

**Hawking radiation** is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted from a black hole
through a particular process worked out by Steven Hawking. This
was surprising because black holes "allow nothing to escape",
including EMR. The process is the consequence of quantum
theory overcoming what general relativity would otherwise dictate.
There are various ways to conceive the mechanism, a common one being
that quantum fluctuations just outside the event horizon
produce a pair of **virtual particles**, which happen to be such that
one escapes and the other falls through event horizon. With this
permanent separation, the particles cannot recombine
(annihilation would have been the typical result) and the
particle that escaped effectively becomes "no longer virtual".
Another way to conceive the mechanism involves quantum tunneling
outward through the event horizon. The resulting EMR spectral energy distribution is
worked out to be black-body radiation as if black holes have
temperatures proportional to their mass. A consequence
is that unless mass continues falling into a black hole at a
sufficient rate, the black hole grows smaller and given enough time,
eventually dissolves into nothing.

(*black holes,physics,EMR*)
**Further reading:**

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawking_radiation

**Referenced by pages:**

black-hole information paradox

black hole model

black hole (BH)

quantum fluctuations

superradiance

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